Textual Criticism – refers to the linguistic science of evaluating differ manuscripts of a work (usually ancient work) and variants within that work. Amanuscript is a single copy of the work or a portion of the work. A variant is when comparing two manuscripts of the same passage of the same work, there is some kind of difference in spelling, words, word order, extra or missing words. The rules of textual criticism are usually established in reference to ancient works and are not much different between secular works and religious works.